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ADVANCING BIOCHEMICAL RESEARCH
A better retail/wholesale consortium! The established leaders are being challenged.
Is your SBIR grants, funding or laboratory budgets under fiscal assault? Are you bombarded with automated responses, impersonal emails, inflated retail prices and wholesale quote requests that take days to weeks?
We rival all the ‘big box companies.’
Tradition states that large one stop shopping is the answer. I refute this notion. As the ‘big box companies’ merge and become bloated, you are left with fewer choices, higher prices, impersonal customer service and ultimately partners that are less responsive to your requirements.
We are the future.
We strive to be the next generation of retail/wholesale consortium. We employ our 30+ years of sourcing expertise to constantly build the very best consortium of certified/audited companies in each field, including but not limited to the following: Antibiotics, Buffers, Detergents, Nucleic Acid Purification, Cell culture, Microbial media, Substrates, Enzyme Inhibitors, Stem Cell biology, Cancer, Angiogenesis, Epigenetics, Inflammation, Neurobiology…
We focus on customer-centric cost-savings.
Our Core Reagent Consortium is free of costly traditional distribution channels, profit bleeding bid processes, and pricing independence. We wholeheartedly believe YOU DESERVE the cost saving not a multinational conglomerate.
We build relationships with our customers.
AG Scientific’s team is straight forward, consisting of forthright people. We do not hide behind ‘the email curtain’. We will build a professional rapport, so you know who you are dealing with and who will be responsive to all your specific requirements.
We give you one-on-one attention.
We take great pride returning to a true level of customer responsiveness that sets us apart in this marketplace. We value returning to a more person-to-person interaction; pick up the phone, video conference, visit the client.
Our motto is “REAL PEOPLE IN REAL TIME WITH REAL RAPID RESPONSE.”
The followings are what we are specialized in:
Proteases are destructive molecules that break down proteins by catabolizing peptide bonds, turning proteins into amino acid chains or smaller peptides. Proteases are found endogenously in practically all organisms, and are used in natural biological processes such as blood-clotting, metabolism of proteins, and the regulation of apoptosis.
Invasive proteases can contaminate research samples and slow or halt research progress, rendering time-consuming and expensive work useless. Protease inhibitor cocktails are a unique series of enzyme inhibitors that knock out specific proteases to avoid peptide bond hydrolysis and subsequent protein destruction. They are used widely in primary research and in drug development.
Protease inhibitors can be classified by the particular protease they inhibit, or by their mechanism of action. For example, protease inhibitors can inhibit cysteine, serine, threonine, aspartic, or matealloproteases, meaning they prevent degradation of that protease’s substrate. The most common mechanisms of action of protease inhibitors are suicide inhibition and transition state inhibition, although there are others. Suicide inhibitors, often used in classical drug design, bind irreversibly and site-specifically to a protease enzyme, rendering it inactive. Transition state inhibitors are those that mimic transition states, binding to the substrate during a transition state and preventing the protease from cleaving or otherwise degrading that substrate. AG Scientific maintains a large selection of standard inhibitor cocktails in stock, as well as the ability to prepare custom formulations.
Necrosis is the premature death of cells in living tissue and can be caused by external factors to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, cancer, infarction, poisons, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), inflammation or trauma.
Historically, cell death has been subdivided into regulated (apoptosis, aka programmed cell death) and unregulated (necrosis) forms. While apoptosis has always been recognized to be a pathway of highly coordinated signaling events which is a naturally occurring cause of cellular death and can often provide beneficial effects to the organism.
Necrosis is morphologically characterized by a gain in cell volume (oncosis), swelling of organelles, plasma membrane rupture and subsequent loss of intracellular contents. Necrosis or necrotic cell death is almost always detrimental and can be fatal. Currently, necrotic pathways are poorly defined and are still largely identified in negative terms by the absence of apoptotic or autophagic markers. Biochemically it is characterized by loss of regulation in ion homeostasis, random digestion of DNA & ultimately postlytic of DNA fragmentation. Physiologically, necrosis affects groups of contiguous cells, phagocytosis by macrophages and significant inflammatory immune response
Newly research is determining that necrosis is not just a series of unregulated, uncontrollable processes but is in fact a series of 'programmed necrosis' aptly named necroptosis.
Historically, Necrosis has been considered an accidental cell death and not set to determined pathways or cellular regulation. Necrotic cell death is defined by an increase in cell volume, swelling of organelles, plasma membrane rupture and eventual leakage of intracellular components. Now it is becoming increasingly realized, Neurotic cell death may be executed through defined mechanisms or pathways aptly termed "Necroptosis" (Degterev et al 2005). In fact, it may be executed via stimulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), FasL and TRAIL. These are the same ligands that activate apoptosis.
Thus, cell death induced by the activation of the death receptor may be accomplished through alternative death pathways or necroptosis. Receptor interacting protein (RIP) kinases constitute a family of seven members, all of which contain a kinase domain. They are crucial regulators of cell survival and death. Specifically, RIP1 kinase activation is required as an upstream regulator of necroptotic death pathway.
Additionally, after TNFα stimulation identified Cylindromatosis (CYLD), a tumor suppressor, as an important regulator for mediating both Apoptosis & Necroptosis. It appears ubiquitination/deubiquination may be involved in the signal transduction of both Apoptosis & Necroptosis. Preliminary research demonstrates the inhibition of CYLS results in the suppression of Necroptosis by up-regulating wnt signaling. The wnt signaling pathway is a network of proteins best known for their roles in embryogenesis, cancer, basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division. Necroptosis downstream mechanisms are still very preliminary and require further elucidation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is shown to be the executioner of necroptosis from some cell types and research has determined antioxidant treatment does not rescue all cell types from necroptosis.
Mitochondrion are well defined in apoptotic cell death although there is preliminary mitochondrial involvement in necroptosis. Specifically, there is a downstream role for RIP1, adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and cyclophilin D (cypD) in the mitochondrial permeability transition has been proposed for necroptosis. In a cardiac ischemia experiment, a reduction in necrotic cell death occurred in cypD-deficient mice (Nakagawa et al. 2005).
Finally, autophagic vesicles are frequently observed in necroptotic cells thus the possibility of autophagy as an execution mechanism for necroptosis. It appear initial thoughts of autophagic cell death could actually be enlighten to demonstrate it is actually necroptosis.
Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death. It is a normal and necessary phenomenon for many biological developmental processes, allowing cells to differentiate from each other and to form proper connections. It is also a critical phenomenon in aging and in healthy cell turnover; the healthy adult human body sheds tens of billions of cells each day in order to maintain homeostasis. Excessive or faulty apoptosis is associated with many human disorders such as neurodegenerative and auto-immune diseases and the proliferation of cancers. The machinery and signaling pathways that control cell life and death are key areas in human therapeutic research, the manipulation of which offer great potential to alter the course of many human diseases.
Cancer is most accurately a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth or division. There are more than 100 types of cancer that can occur in nearly every organ or tissue in the body. The risk of cancer increases with age and also with certain genetic predispositions and/or exposure to carcinogens. Various types of cancer have become more treatable as research efforts continue towards eradicating these diseases. Research into the treatment of cancer has flourished particularly in the past decade, recently involving biotechnological tactics such as immunotherapy and gene therapy. Current therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancers include surface proteins of malignant cells as wells as heat shock proteins and other molecules involved in signaling pathways for processes critical to cancer growth such as angiogenesis, cell differentiation, proliferation, and growth.
The fascinating field of molecular biology aims to understand the relationships between and regulation of different systems in a cell. Molecular biology is closely tied to the fields of biochemistry and genetics, and these fields share many techniques, approaches, and imminent goals. Molecular biology procedures are powerful tools used to copy DNA, identify which molecules are present in a sample, discover when and why a particular gene will be expressed, and more. Applications of molecular biology extend from biophysics to evolution, virology to neuroscience, and computation/modeling to cancer.
Most of the human cell cycle is spent in the interphase. This is the period in which the cell grows, replicates its DNA, and acquires nutrients needed for the rest of the cell cycle, which is known as mitosis. Upon entering mitosis, the cell divides itself into two identical cells, and each new cell enters an independent interphase. The intricate regulatory processes of the cell cycle allow healthy cells to divide and force unhealthy cells to be repaired or to undergo apoptosis. These regulatory processes are the subject of intense scrutiny for application into the treatment of human disease, particularly a variety of cancers.
The field of neurochemistry investigates the functionality of chemicals in the brain and nervous system. Neurotransmitters, possibly the most widely-known neurochemicals, are the chemical basis of communication between cells in the nervous system. Other neurochemicals include a milieu of proteins and lipids that work together to make up the r’s and other dementias, addiction, spinal cord injury, and neurodegeneratioalluring aggregate of human conscious and unconscious functions. Current applications of neurochemical research aim to understand and improve prognoses in diseases such as Alzheimer.
Angiogenesis is the ability to form new blood vessels. This natural process is critical to development of blood flow architecture in utero and to wound healing throughout life. The body regulates angiogenesis by maintaining a balance of growth and inhibitory factors. Improper blood vessel growth is linked to several human diseases including cataracts and age-related blindness, skin diseases, stroke and cardiovascular disease, and cancer proliferation. When cancerous cells in the middle of a tumor are low in oxygen, they can send angiogenic signals to the exterior of the tumor to indicate the need for more blood flow. In this case, tumors can develop their own blood supply, allowing a tumor to acquire more oxygen and nutrients and thereby to grow and spread. Some newer cancer therapies involve blocking angiogenesis in order to restrict cancerous cells from thriving. Conversely, angiogenesis stimulation is used as therapy to speed the process of wound healing, enhance areas with weak circulation, and may prove effective in stimulating growth in damaged nerves and tissues such as the brain and heart.
Proteases and phosphatases break down bonds via hydrolysis. Proteases break down peptide bonds of proteins into amino acid chains or smaller peptides. These are found endogenously in practically all organisms, and are used in natural biological processes such as blood-clotting, metabolism of proteins, and the regulation of apoptosis. Medical applications of various types of proteases range from treatment of ischemic stroke via manipulation of blood-clotting to anti-inflammatory functionalities.
Phosphatases remove phosphate groups from monophosphate esters, leaving a free hydroxyl group. These are found in practically all tissues, body fluids, and cells, and are used in natural biological processes such as bone calcification and metabolism of carbohydrates. They play an important role in many signal transduction pathways, as the addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or de-activate an enzyme, or allow a particular protein-protein interaction. Medical applications of various types of phosphatases range from regulation of gene expression to diagnostic testing for a variety of disorders including anemia, liver function, and various types of cancers.
Individual proteases and phosphatases have specific laboratory and clinical functionalities; AG Scientific offers a wide variety of these enzymes to cater to your research, development, or processing needs.
Ionophores are molecules that facilitate ion passage in or out of cell membranes. They can do this by binding to particular ions and acting as a mobile carrier, escorting them through the hydrophobic environment of cell membranes, or they can form ion channels. Ion channels form pores in membranes through which ions can pass. There are several types of ion channels, each regulated by various mechanisms designed to allow only certain ions to flow into and out of a cell and only at certain times.
Ion channels are named by their ion selectivity and by their opening/closing mechanism, which is also known as gating. Voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels are the most abundant and well-studied gating mechanisms, but there are also light-gated channels, mechanosensitive channels, second messenger channels, and others. Although there are some non-selective ion channels, most ion channels are selective for particular ions, allowing only ions of particular size and charge to pass through.
All endogenously present ions pass in and out of cell membranes via ion channels including calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and hydrogen protons. In the human body ionophores are closely connected with functions ranging from digestion to mental health. Ionophores are used for diagnostic radioimaging, they are components of many pharmaceuticals, and are used widely in research to increase or decrease ion concentration in solution.
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is broadly linked to the regulation of nearly every cellular process. It is the main mechanism for catabolism of proteins, which breaks down large protein molecules so the cell can use parts to produce energy, recycle parts to make new molecules, or excrete parts that are no longer needed. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involves two major processes: conjugation and degradation. Conjugation is the process of targeting a substrate protein whereby several ubiquitin molecules attach to it, and degradation is the breakdown of that substrate protein by proteasomes. Certain types of ubiquitin molecules may also be responsible for processes such as DNA repair and endocytosis. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is closely tied to the functionalities of the cell cycle, gene expression, immune and/or stress response, apoptosis, and many others.
Methods and applications of gene selection are constantly improving, as is the basic science leading to a more complete understanding of this process and its functions. Genome analyses reveal insight into evolutionary development of humans and other species. Answers to developmental and pathological questions are being answered by correlating gene expression to particular conditions. By examining the activity levels of thousands of genes, researchers are beginning to reveal which genes are responsible for the molecular events that are involved in particular diseases. Gene selection can also be experimentally modified with lab reagents such as selection antibiotics. Such studies are leading to therapeutics, diagnostic tools, and even predictive technologies for a wide array of diseases.
Cell cultures comrise the nutritious environment for cultivating cells. Particular nutrients can be used to dictate cell fate in processes including maturation, gene selection, and even cell form and function. The same is true for tissue cultures. Cell and tissue culture protocols can help determine the nutrients to use for nearly every type of cell cultivation or manipulation commonly used to date. Different nutrients are required for optimum harvest, isolation, or preservation of cells and tissues. AG Scientific offers a wide variety of standard media and culture products, as well as the ability to provide custom culture products or media quickly upon request.
Detergents cleanse hydrophobic molecules by nature of their amphiphilic properties. Biological detergents are used to purify, isolate or solubilize membrane proteins while preserving the protein’s biological activity; they are also used to selectively prepare culture media by inhibiting certain bacteria growth, and to isolate, purify, crystallize or renature proteins. A high-quality biological detergent with the right properties can increase your yield and lower your costs. It is important to use a detergent of the highest quality, as some can be contaminated with undesirable oxidizing compounds. For your protein solubilizing and protein purification needs, A.G. Scientific carries the highest quality zwitterionic CHAPS and MOPS buffer, sulphobetaines, and dust-free SDS.
Proteins in the cytoplasm that provide structure to a cell are collectively known as the cytoskeleton. In addition to providing structure and protection to individual cells by acting as its musculature and skeleton, the cytoskeleton is involved in a cell’s mobility, division, organization, import and export.
Three categories of proteins comprise the cytoskeleton, which is present in all cells. These are actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules; each has distinct structure, properties, and roles in cytoskeletal functioning. With the action of motor proteins, the cytoskeleton is involved in nearly every contraction, motion, and intracellular exchange that takes place inside a cell or on its surface.
Growth factors are a wide family of molecules that affect cell growth, proliferation, or differentiation. Different types of growth factors reside in different tissues and fluids of the body, performing various individualized functions from nerve regeneration to blood vessel differentiation. Some growth factors, such as BDNF are thought to be involved in the pathology of mental disorder such as schizophrenia and the perception of pain. Other growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 and epidermal growth factor are implicated in various types of tumors and cancers. Many growth factors are currently being investigated and utilized for their therapeutic potential.
Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.
Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics.
- Stem cells are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity.
- Stem cells, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues. In other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions.
Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans:
- Embryonic Stem Cells: Scientists discovered ways to derive embryonic stem cells from early mouse embryos nearly 30 years ago, in 1981. In 1998 this research of mouse stem cells led to a method to derive stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the laboratory. These cells are called human embryonic stem cells. The embryos used in these studies were created for reproductive purposes through in vitro fertilization procedures.
- Non-embryonic "somatic" or "adult" stem cells: In 2006, researchers made another breakthrough by identifying conditions that would allow some specialized adult cells to be "reprogrammed" genetically to assume a stem cell-like state called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
Stem cells are important for living organisms for numerous reasons. In the 3- to 5-day-old embryo, called a blastocyst, the inner cells give rise to the entire body of the organism, including many specialized cell types and organs such as the heart, lung, skin, sperm, eggs and other tissues. In some adult tissues, such as bone marrow, muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease.
Stem Cell’s unique regenerative abilities offer new avenues for treating diseases such as diabetes, and heart disease. However, significant preclinical research remains on how to apply clinical applications for cell-based therapies to treat disease, (aka regenerative or reparative medicine). Research on stem cells continues to advance knowledge on stem cells essential properties, what makes stem cells different from specialized cell types, how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms.