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Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide (through mitosis) and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells (these are called pluripotent cells), but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.
FREE REVIEW ARTICLES
- Minireview: The Stem Cell Next Door: Skeletal and Hematopoietic Stem Cell "Niches" in Bone, Paolo Bianco. Minireview: The Stem Cell Next Door: Skeletal and Hematopoietic Stem Cell "Niches" in Bone. Endocrinology, 2011; 152: 2957 - 2962.
- Stem Cells and Revascularization Therapies, Anticancer Res. Stem Cells and Revascularization Therapies, 2012; 32: 3597 - 3598.
- Stem-cell ecology and stem cells in motion, Thalia Papayannopoulou and David T. Scadden. Stem-cell ecology and stem cells in motion. Blood, 2008; 111: 3923 - 3930.
- Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles., Mark R Placzek,I-Ming Chung et al . J. R. Soc. Interface 6 March 2009 vol. 6 no. 32 209-232.