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PHOSPHATASE INHIBITOR COCKTAILS
A phosphatase is an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from its substrate by hydrolysing phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free hydroxyl group (see dephosphorylation). This action is directly opposite to that of phosphorylases and kinases, which attach phosphate groups to their substrates by using energetic molecules like ATP. A common phosphatase in many organisms is alkaline phosphatase.
Protein phosphorylation is the most common and important form of reversible protein posttranslational modification (PTM), with up to 30% of all proteins being phosphorylated at any given time. Protein kinases (PKs) are the effectors of phosphorylation and catalyse the transfer of a γ-phosphate from ATP to specific amino acids on proteins. Several hundred PKs exist in mammals and are classified into distinct super-families.
Proteins are phosphorylated predominantly on Ser, Thr and Tyr residues, which account for 86, 12 and 2% respectively of the phosphoproteome, at least in mammals. In contrast, protein phosphatases (PPs) are the primary effectors of dephosphorylation and can be grouped into three main classes based on sequence, structure and catalytic function. The largest class of PPs is the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family comprising PP1, PP2A, PP2B, PP4, PP5, PP6 and PP7, and the protein phosphatase Mg2+- or Mn2+-dependent (PPM) family, composed primarily of PP2C. The protein Tyr phosphatase (PTP) super-family forms the second group, and the aspartate-based protein phosphatases the third.
FREE REVIEW ARTICLES
- Phosphatase-1 inhibitor-1 in physiological and pathological β-adrenoceptor signalling, Katrin Wittköpper, Dobromir Dobrev, et al. Phosphatase-1 inhibitor-1 in physiological and pathological β-adrenoceptor signalling. Cardiovasc Res, 2011; 91: 392 - 401.
- Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Protein Phosphatase 2A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yu Jiang. Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Protein Phosphatase 2A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev, 2006; 70: 440 - 449.
- Phosphatase Inhibition Delays Translational Recovery, R. Luke Wiseman and Jeffery W. Kelly. Phosphatase Inhibition Delays Translational Recovery. Science, 2011; 332: 44 - 45.